Drinking water sources are subject to contamination and require appropriate treatment to remove disease-causing agents. Public drinking water systems use various methods of water treatment to provide safe drinking water for their communities.
Why is stormwater runoff a problem?
As it flows over the land surface, stormwater picks up potential pollutants that may include sediment, nutrients (from lawn fertilizers), bacteria (from animal and human waste), pesticides (from lawn and garden chemicals), metals (from rooftops and roadways), and petroleum by-products (from leaking vehicles). Pollution originating over a large land area without a single point of origin and generally carried by stormwater is considered non-point pollution. In contrast, point sources of pollution originate from a single point, such as a municipal or industrial discharge pipe. Polluted stormwater runoff can be harmful to plants, animals, and people.
Commonly misspelled as Flocculent
Addition of anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) to agricultural irrigation water can dramatically reduce erosion of soils. However, the toxicity of PAM to aquatic life, while often claimed to be low, has not been thoroughly evaluated.
Stormwater is water that originates during precipitation events and snow/ice melt. Stormwater can soak into the soil (infiltrate), be held on the surface and evaporate, or runoff and end up in nearby streams, rivers, or other water bodies (surface water).
Best Management Practices (BMP) is a term used in the United States and Canada to describe a type of water pollution control. Historically the term has referred to auxiliary pollution controls in the fields of industrial wastewater control and municipal sewage control, while in stormwater management (both urban and rural) and wetland management, BMPs may refer to a principal control or treatment technique as well.
Flocculation, in the field of chemistry, is a process wherein colloids come out of suspension in the form of floc or flake; either spontaneously or due to the addition of aclarifying agent. The action differs from precipitation in that, prior to flocculation, colloids are merely suspended in a liquid and not actually dissolved in a solution. In the flocculated system, there is no formation of a cake, since all the flocs are in the suspension.
Coagulation and flocculation are important processes in water treatment with coagulation to destabilize particles through chemical reaction between coagulant and colloids, and flocculation to transport the destabilized particles that will cause collisions with floc.
Floc (or Flock), the product of Flocculation
Water treatment is any process that makes water more acceptable for a specific end-use, which may be drinking, industry, irrigation, river flow maintenance, water recreation or many other uses. Water treatment should remove existing water contaminants or so reduce their concentration that their water becomes fit for its desired end-use, which may be safely returning used water to the environment.
In water treatment, coagulation occurs when a coagulant is added to water to "destabilize" colloidal suspensions.
One of the largest uses for polyacrylamide is to flocculate solids in a liquid. This process applies to water treatment, and processes like paper making and screen printing. Polyacrylamide can be supplied in a powder or liquid form, with the liquid form being subcategorized as solution and emulsion polymer. Even though these products are often called 'polyacrylamide', many are actually copolymers of acrylamide and one or more other chemical species, such as an acrylic acid or a salt thereof. The main consequence of this is to give the 'modified' polymer a particular ionic character.
Dewatering or construction dewatering are terms used to describe the action of removing groundwater or surface water from a construction site. Normally dewatering process is done by pumping or evaporation and is usually done before excavation for footings or to lower water table that might be causing problems during excavations. Dewatering can also be known as the process of removing water from soil by wet classification.
Similar to anionic polymerization reactions, cationic polymerization reactions are very sensitive to the type of solvent used. Specifically, the ability of a solvent to form free ions will dictate the reactivity of the propagating cationic chain.
Geotextiles are permeable fabrics which, when used in association with soil, have the ability to separate, filter, reinforce, protect, or drain. Typically made from polypropylene or polyester, geotextile fabrics come in three basic forms: woven (resembling mail bag sacking), needle punched (resembling felt), or heat bonded (resembling ironed felt).
Alabama DOT Stormwater Management Plan (SWMP)
Wikipedia - Wastewater Treatment
FROM PAGE 7:
Weather Preparedness and Recovery
Water quality is most susceptible to potential pollutants in stormwater runoff during precipitation events. It is imperative that advanced planning be made for such events. Our weather preparedness and recovery plan is as follows:...
Wastewater treatment is a process to convert wastewater - which is water no longer needed or suitable for its most recent use - into an effluent that can be either returned to the water cycle with minimalenvironmental issues or reused.